Other aspects of instrumentation include the Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Instruments. By Static Characteristics we mean the general attributes such as accuracy, sensitivity, range, etc. Dynamic Characteristics are solely concerned with how the instrument responds to a changing or dynamic input. Of most importance is the first order response, which is typical of most instruments, to a step change in input.
Siemens have a few pdf files on different types of switches such as proximity sensors. Have a look at limit switches, inductive switch sensors, capacitive and ultrasonic switch sensors, and photoelectric switch sensors.